Agreement Of Worms

Continental Europe has experienced about 50 years of struggle, with the efforts of Lamberto Scannabecchi, the future Pope Honorius II and the 1121 Land Day of Wurzburg to end the conflict. On 23 September 1122, Pope Callixtus II and Emperor Henry V, near the German town of Worms, concluded an agreement that is now known as the Worms Concordat and effectively ended the inauguration controversies. It eliminated secular investment, when it could space secular leaders, but have a considerable influence on the appointment process. The concord of Worms (Latin: Concordatum Wormatiense), sometimes called Pactum Calixtinum by papal historians, was an agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Emperor Henry V on September 23, 1122 near the town of Worm. It ended the first phase of the power struggle between the papacy and the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire and was interpreted to mean the seed of national sovereignty, which would one day be confirmed in the Treaty of Westphalia (1648). This was partly an unforeseen result of strategic manoeuvres between the Church and European sovereigns on political control within their domains. The king was enshrined in the right to invest bishops of worldly authority (“by the Lance”) in the territories they governed, but not with sacred authority (“by the ring and the staff”); The result was that the bishops owed both the pope and the king loyalty in worldly affairs, because they were obliged to affirm the sovereign`s right to invite them, under his oath of allegiance, to military support. The former emperors of the Roman Empire had considered that they had the right to appoint Church officials in their territories (such as bishops) and to confirm the election of the pope (and to effectively appoint them popes in times of extraordinary emergency). Indeed, the emperors had relied heavily on the bishops for their secular administration, for they were not a hereditary or quasi hereditary nobility with family interests, which further jeopardized the struggle. A more immediate result of the inauguration struggle has identified a property right that has retained sovereign territory and which recognizes the right of kings to income from the territory of a vacant diocese and a basis for reasonable taxation.

These rights were outside feudalism, which defined authority in a hierarchy of personal relationships, with only a lax relationship with the territory. The pope was born as a figure above and August from the direct control of the Roman emperor. It began as a power struggle between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV (then king, then emperor of the Holy Roman Empire) in 1076. [2] The conflict ended in 1122, when Pope Callixtus II and Emperor Henry V agreed to the concorda of Worms. The agreement required the bishops to swear allegiance to the lay monarch, who had authority “by the Lance,” but left the choice to the Church. It reaffirmed the right of the Church to invest bishops with sacred authority, symbolized by a ring and a whole. In Germany (but not in Italy and Burgundy), the emperor also retained the right to preside over the elections of abbots and bishops by the ecclesiastical authorities and to settle disputes. The emperors of the Holy Roman Empire renounced the right to elect the Pope. The victory was as short-lived as that of his father, Henry IV, over Gregory VII.

The clergy asked Paschal to revoke his agreement, which he did in 1112. The dispute followed the predictable course: Henry V rebelled and was excommunicated.